This discussion paper analyzes the structural and causal factors that led to the collapse of Mozambique’s landmark 1992 General Peace Agreement in October 2013 and why they matter for the country’s future stability.
The recent and unexpected death of Afonso Dhlakama, leader of Mozambique’s largest opposition political party the Mozambican National Resistance (Renamo), amidst advanced discussions to secure a new peace agreement raises the level of uncertainty that a successful peace agreement can be renegotiated. Efforts should be undertaken to speedily conclude a peace agreement with his interim successor, Ossufo Momade, to ensure political stability before the October 2019 general elections.
A concerted effort is needed to reintegrate the roughly 800 Renamo ex-combatants into social and economic development programs, including the national military.
The failure to decentralize political power and enfranchise Renamo in a ruling coalition government—a longstanding grievance—played a significant role in the dissolution of the peace agreement and the re-emergence of armed conflict. If left unresolved, the issue of political decentralization will remain a site of contention and a catalyst for future conflict.
Part of the decentralization debate concerns the adequate provision of social and economic services to rural and marginalized territories. Included in this is the need for greater transparency in natural resource–related project concession negotiations and development.
Following the disputed presidential election results in 2007- 08, widespread violence engulfed Kenya, killing over one thousand people and displacing hundreds of thousands. One in three Kenyans were directly affected by the violence.
The journal Global Constitutionalism published an article by Eamon Aloyo in its November 2013 issue entitled, “Improving Global Accountability: The ICC and Nonviolent Crimes Against Humanity.”Aloyo’s article represents the view that some nonviolent
A series of workshops convened by the One Earth Future Foundation and Rodney Bruce Hall (Oxford University) on the topic of the roles NGOs can play in contributing to peace and good governance resulted in the book Reducing Armed Violence with NGO
A hallmark of the contemporary international system is the complexity of problems facing actors today. Yet creative facilitators can build bridges between a wide array of actors to address these most difficult challenges.
Social behavior is often described as altruistic, spiteful, selfish, or mutually beneficial. These terms are appealing, but it has not always been clear how they are defined and what purpose they serve.
Scholars have proposed a number of different ways to improve global accountability, but none has adequately addressed how individuals who commit widespread or systematic nonviolent wrongs can be held to account.