This research examines the effects of women’s representation in resistance movements on their choice of strategies and movement effectiveness. The Women in Resistance (WiRe) data set is the first attempt to assess resistance movements on the degree to which they incorporate women into their political goals, their memberships, and their leadership. It includes data on 338 resistance movements committed to the overthrow of a government or territorial self-determination from 1945-2014. This report provides an overview of the WiRe data set and assesses how women’s engagement in resistance movements can affect movement performance. It concludes that increasing women’s engagement is associated with more nonviolent strategies and more effective movements.
Front-line women’s engagement is present in 76% of violent campaigns, and 99% of nonviolent campaigns.
The greater the role of women in the campaign, the more likely the campaign is to use nonviolent methods, even in highly repressive contexts.
Nonviolent campaigns with high participation by women or where women call for peaceful mobilization are more likely to shift the loyalty of security forces, an important element of campaign success.
Frontline women’s participation and gender-inclusive ideologies are correlated with successful campaigns even when controlling for other elements.
Written byConor Seyle, Matthew R. Walje, Kellie Brandt, Peter Kerins, Megan Matthews, Tyler Maybeeon June 10, 2015
This report is the fifth in a series by Oceans Beyond Piracy with support from OEF Research.These reports annually seek to assess the cost of maritime piracy - both economic and human - to the international community.
This policy brief is based on “The Role of Business in the Responsibility to Protect,” a chapter which appeared in The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar: Legitimacy and Operationalization.
Written byJoseph Kim, Peter Taylor, Pat Barclayon October 23, 2014
Instructors of large classes often face challenges with student motivation. The classroom incentive structure – grades, extra credit, and instructor and peer acknowledgement – may shape student motivations to engage in their studies.